# Functions¶

Felix function types in a Felix are written:

D -> C


where D is the domain type, and C the codomain type, which may not be 0.

## Functional Definition¶

A Felix function can be written with several forms. The simplest form is to use an expression to define the calculation:

fun square (x:int): int => x * x;


which has type

int -> int


## Imperative Definition¶

An expanded form of a function definition uses imperative code:

fun pythag(x:double, y:double) = {
var x2 = x * x;
var y2 = y * y;
var h = sqrt (x2 + y2);
return h;
}


## Pattern Match Definition¶

A definition like:

fun f: opt[int] -> int =
| Some x => x + 1
| None => 0
;


is a shortcut form for:

fun f (v: opt[int]): int =>
match v with
| Some x => x + 1
| None => 0
;


## Parameter Forms¶

A function can only have one parameter, however several can be given if the parameter type is a tuple.

fun pythag(x:double, y:double) => ...


This is roughly an irrefutable pattern match. The tupled parameter form can nest:

fun f(x:double, (y:int, z:long)) => ...


## Var parameters¶

By default, a parameter component is treated as a val meaning the evaluation strategy for the component is determined by the the compiler and the component is immutable.

If a parameter component is marked var, however, it is eagerly evaluated, and is also addressable (and thus mutable).

fun f(x:int, var y:int) = {
y += x;
return y;
}


## Record Argument form¶

Given the two functions and application:

fun f(x:int, y:double) : int => ..
fun f(a:int, b:double) : int => ..


A function can be called with named parameters, that is, with a record:

println$f(x=1,b=2.3);  which resolves the ambiguity. ## Default Arguments¶ Default arguments are also allowed on trailing components: fun f(x:int, y:double=4.2) : int => .. println$ f(x=1);


To use the default value, In this case the function must be called with an argument of record type.

## Purity¶

In Felix functions may depend on variables in a containing scope, or, store located via a pointer, therefore functions need not be pure. An adjective can be used to specify a function is pure:

pure fun twice (x:int) => x + x;


The compiler checks functions to determine if they’re pure. If it finds they are, it adds the pure attribute itself. It a function is found not to be pure but a pure adjective is specified, it is a fatal error. If the compiler is unable to decide if a function is pure, it is assumed to be pure if and only if the pure adjective is specified.

## Inline Functions¶

Functions can have the inline and noinline adjective:

inline fun add(x:int, y:int) => x + y;
noinline fun sub (x:int, y:int) => x - y;


The inline keyword is not a hint, it forces the function to inlined on a direct application unless the function is recursive

Closure are usually not inlined.

Inlining impacts semantics because inline functions usually result in non-var parameters being lazily evaluated. Also, if a parameter isn’t used, its initialisation may be elided, whereas for a closure only the type is known and the argument has to be evaluated.

A function marked noinline will never be inlined.

## Side Effects¶

Functions in Felix are not allowed to have side effects. The compiler does not enforce this rule. However the compiler optimises code assuming there are no side effects in functions, these optimisations are extensive and pervasive.

It is acceptable to add imperative debugging instrumentation to functions, because the behaviour in the face of optimisations is precisely what the debugging instrumentation is designed to report.

## Elision of Constant Functions¶

If a function return value is invariant, the compiler may delete the function and replace applications of it with the constant returned value. The compiler may or may not be able to determine the invariance and return value in general but Felix guarrantees this property in one very important case: a function with a unit codomain type.

## C bindings¶

Felix can lift, or bind, a C or C++ function as a primitive:

 fun sin: double -> double = "sin($1)" requires C_headers::math_h ; fun arctan2 : double * double -> double = "atan2($1,$2)" requires C_headers::math_g ;  The special encoding$1, $2 etc refer to components of the domain tuple. The encoding$a is a quick way to unpack all the arguments.

[More codes]

## C function type¶

Felix also has a type for C function values (pointers):

D --> C


Do not confuse C function values with Felix functions specified by C bndings: the latter are first class Felix functions.

## Closures¶

A felix function can be converted to a closure, which is a first class value including both the function and its context.

For example:

fun add(x:int) = {
fun g(y:int) => x + y;
return g;
}
var r = h 2; // r set to 3


In the example, f has type:

int -> int -> int


The function arrow is right associative so this means f accepts an int (x), and returns a function which accepts another int (y) and returns an int, which is their sum. The variable h contains a closure of g bound to its context which contains the variable x, which has been set to 1.

A closure is represent at run time by a pointer to an object so passing closures around is cheap. Closures are usually allocated on the heap, which is has a cost. The context of a closure is a list of the most recent activation records of the lexically enclosing function frames (ancestors) called a display. All functions, by default, also include the global data frame, called the thread-frame (because it is shared by all threads).

CLosures exist at run time and cannot be polymorphic.

## Higher Order Functions¶

Functions which accept function arguments, or arguments, or return function values, are called higher order functions.

A special notation exist for defining a function which returns another function:

fun add (x:int) (y:int) => y;
println$f 1 2;  Here add is a higher order function with arity 2, it has type int -> int -> int  and is equivalent to the previous version of add. ## Polymorphic functions¶ Functions support parametric polymorphism: fun swap[T,U] (x:T, y:T) => y,x;  You can also use type class constraints: fun showeol[T with Str[T]] (x:T) => x.str + "\n";  The effect of a type class constraint is to inject the methods of the class, specialised to the given arguments, into the scope of the function body. In the example str is a method of Str which translates a value of type T into a human readable string. ## Constructor functions¶ A type name can be used as a function name like this: typedef polar = complex; ctor complex: double * double = "::std::complex($1,$2)"; ctor polar: double * double = "::std::polar($1,\$2)";
var z = polar (1.0, 0.0);


The code ctor is actually a misnomer: these functions are actually conversions, not type constructors .. but the ctor name has stuck.

Constructor function can be polymorphic, in this case the type variables have to be added after the ctor word:

ctor[T] vector: 1 = "::std::vector<?1>()";


## Subtyping Conversion functions¶

A subtyping conversion can be provided for nominal types:

supertype: long (x:int) => x.long;


This says int is a subtype of long, so that a function accepting a long will also accept and int. It is recommended not to use this feature unless emulating inheritance based subtyping of structure values.

## Projection Functions¶

Projections of tuple types can be used as functions with the special name proj followed by a literal int, the domain type must then be given with an of suffix:

proj 1 of (int * double)


Recall the integer literal is zero origin!

Projections for records, structs, and cstructs use the field name, with a type suffix if necessary to resolve overloads.

## Injection Functions¶

Injections of anonymous sums can be used as functions with the special notation:

1: (int + double)
case 1 of (int + double)


Recall the integer literal is zero origin! The more verbose case form is considered deprecated.

Injections for unions use the constructor name, possibly with an of suffix to resolve overloads.

## Pre and post conditions¶

Functions can have pre-conditions:

fun checked_sqrt
(x:double where x >= 0.0)
: double expect result >= 0.0
=> sqrt x
;
`

Pre and post conditions are checked dynamically at run time. They are not part of the function type.